IoT Based Irrigation System with Raspberry Pi 4


Agriculture is one of the oldest and most important professions in the world. Farmers have relied on traditional irrigation systems for centuries to water their crops. However, with the world’s population expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050, finding ways to optimize agricultural production is more important than ever. That’s where IoT-based irrigation systems come in. By integrating sensors, controllers, and communication devices, IoT-based irrigation systems allow farmers to monitor and control the irrigation process remotely, leading to more efficient water usage and higher crop yields.

This article will explore how to build an IoT-based irrigation system using the Raspberry Pi 4. The Raspberry Pi 4 is a small, affordable, and versatile computer that can be used for various IoT projects. By combining the Raspberry Pi 4 and soil moisture sensor, controllers, and communication devices, we can create a powerful and cost-effective irrigation system that can be controlled and monitored remotely. So, whether you are a farmer looking to optimize your irrigation system or an electronics enthusiast looking for a new project, this article is for you. Let’s get started!

Overview of IoT-Based Irrigation System

An IoT-based irrigation system is a sophisticated system that requires various components to work together seamlessly. The system consists of sensors, controllers, and communication devices, each with a unique function.

Sensors are one of the most crucial components of the IoT-based irrigation system. These sensors measure the soil moisture content, temperature, and humidity, which provide essential information for farmers to make informed decisions about their irrigation system. The soil moisture sensor measures the water content in the soil, and this data is used to determine whether the crops need watering or not. The temperature and humidity sensors measure the atmospheric conditions, which can help farmers to determine whether the crops are at risk of disease or pest infestation.

Controllers are another critical component of the IoT-based irrigation system. The controllers automate the irrigation process based on the sensor readings. This means that the controllers will turn on the water pump when the soil moisture level falls below a certain threshold and turn it off when the desired level is reached. This automation process ensures that the crops receive the right amount of water, preventing over or under-watering.

Finally, communication devices are used to send the data collected by the sensors to the cloud, where it can be processed and analyzed. The communication devices can be Wi-Fi or cellular-enabled, and they transmit the data wirelessly to a cloud-based platform. The data is then processed and analyzed, providing farmers with insights and recommendations to optimize their irrigation system.


The following are the components required to build an IoT-based irrigation system using a Raspberry Pi 4:

  • Raspberry Pi 4
  • Soil moisture sensor
  • Temperature and humidity sensor
  • Relay module
  • Water pump
  • Jumper wires
  • Breadboard
  • Micro SD card

Setting Up the Raspberry Pi 4

Setting up a Raspberry Pi 4 for an IoT-based irrigation system is straightforward. The first step is downloading and installing the Raspbian operating system on a micro SD card. Raspbian is a Debian-based operating system that is specifically designed for the Raspberry Pi. It is free to download and easy to install, making it an ideal choice for beginners.

After downloading and installing Raspbian on the micro SD card, you can connect the Raspberry Pi 4 to a monitor, keyboard, and mouse. This will allow you to access the Raspberry Pi 4’s desktop environment, where you can install the necessary software and configure the system settings.

Next, using jumper wires, you can connect the soil moisture sensor, temperature, and humidity sensor to the GPIO pins of the Raspberry Pi 4. The GPIO pins are a set of 40 pins that are used for general-purpose input/output (GPIO) operations. They are located on the edge of the Raspberry Pi 4 board and can be easily accessed using jumper wires.

To connect the sensors to the GPIO pins, you will need to refer to the sensor’s datasheet or documentation. Most sensors come with a set of instructions that detail how to connect them to the Raspberry Pi 4. Once the sensors are connected, you can start writing code to read the sensor data and automate the irrigation process.

Programming the Raspberry Pi 4

Programming the Raspberry Pi 4 for an IoT-based irrigation system requires a working knowledge of Python programming language. Python is a popular programming language that is easy to learn and widely used in IoT and data science applications.

To build the irrigation system, write a Python program that reads the sensor data and controls the water pump using the relay module. The program will continuously monitor the sensors’ soil moisture level, temperature, and humidity readings. When the soil moisture level falls below a certain threshold, the program will turn on the water pump using the relay module, and when the desired moisture level is reached, it will turn off the pump.

In addition to controlling the irrigation system, the Python program will also send the sensor data to a cloud-based platform. This cloud-based platform could be a third-party service like AWS, Google Cloud, or a self-hosted server. The sensor data can be analyzed using various machine learning and data analysis techniques to provide insights into irrigation management.

The Python program will need to be set up to send the sensor data to the cloud-based platform using an internet connection. This can be achieved using various methods, including Wi-Fi or cellular data. Once the program is set up to send the data, the cloud-based platform can process and analyze the data to provide insights and recommendations for optimizing the irrigation system.


An IoT-based irrigation system using a Raspberry Pi 4 is an excellent way to automate the irrigation process and optimize water usage in agriculture. Farmers can remotely monitor and control the irrigation system with this system, ensuring optimal crop yields. The project requires a basic understanding of electronics and programming and can be a fun and educational project for anyone interested in IoT-based systems.